Citations consist of identifying information about the sources you are using in your research. To cite properly, you need to be able to distinguish between different types of information sources. For example, there are different rules for citing print versus online sources, and individual online articles versus articles from library databases.
You will also encounter different scenarios with your various sources types that require different ways of citing. For example, sources with no author, sources with multiple authors, multiple sources by the same author, and indirect sources.
Although the online style guides are very helpful, there are situations and types of sources for which they do not provide explicit instructions. If the type of source you are using is not included in the style guide, follow the guidelines for the most similar type of source. For example, the liner notes of a music CD would be similar to an anthology of poetry.
If you cannot find a certain piece of information (for example, many websites do not list an author or page numbers) most style guides will tell you how to handle these situations.
Before you start your research:
As you research:
In addition to citation style guides, there are numerous tools -- from basic to advanced -- to help you format, organize, and share your citations.
For more information about citation tools, visit the Citation Tools tab of the Cite Your Sources guide on the library homepage.
The Cite Your Sources guide also has tabbed pages for each of the four citation styles discussed in this tutorial (MLA, APA, CSE, and Chicago). Visit the tabbed page for the style you are using to view style guides and sample papers for that style.
Please note: If you need to request accommodations with content linked to on this guide, on the basis of a disability, please contact Accessibility Resources and Services by emailing them at Disability.Services@esc.edu. Requests for accommodations should be submitted as early as possible to allow for sufficient planning. If you have questions, please visit the Accessibility Resources and Services website https://www.esc.edu/accessibility/